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SIKH GURUS

GURU HARGOBIND SAHIB
(1595 - 1644)


GURUGURU HARGOBIND SAHIB (1595 - 1644), son of and Guru Arjan Sahib was born at Guru Ki Vadali (district Amritsar). He had five sons : Gurditta, Suraj Mall, Ani Rai, Atal Rai and (Guru) Tegh Bahadur (Sahib). He was installed as Sixth Nanak.

He wore two swords representing Miri (temporal) and Piri (transcendental). He declared that the subject of the Supreme Sovereign can not be subject of an earthly ruler. He said the earthly rules had no right to govern the minds and the bodies of the subjects of God. A man of Miri has an obligation to import Dharma (Righteousness) and a man of Piri must not be a silent observer to injustice, tyranny and in-humanism. A Sikh has to be a "saint-soldier" i.e. a man of Miri and Piri.

He revealed Akal Takht Sahib (the Throne of the Almighty) in 1609. Here, he held his court and received the ambassadors from the other nations and sub-nations. As per the instructions of Guru Arjan Sahib, he formed Sikh Army to fight against injustice. He laid the foundation of Lohgarh Fort in 1609. Sometimes later, a wall around the city Guru-Da-Chakk (Amritsar) was also built. In 1612, he left Guru-Da-Chakk for Delhi where he was arrested and sent to Gwalior Fort Prison. From 1613 to 1619 he remained in Gwalior Fort Prison. Sain Mian Mir and Wazir Khan (later, the Governor of Lahore) were friendly to Guru Hargobind Sahib. In 1618, Murtaza Khan, the Governor of Lahore, died. He was succeeded by Wazir Khan. Wazir Khan and Sain Mian Mir impressed upon Jahangir to release Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib was released on October 1619. He helped the release of 52 Hindu kings (chiefs of States) detained by Jahangir, the Mogul emperor, at Gwalior Fort Prison. Among them were the rulers of Bilaspur, Handur also. In November 1619, he reached Goindwal Sahib. Here, on January 1620, he held a meeting with Jahangir. From here both of them went to Kalanaur (district Gurdaspur). After this Guru Sahib moved to Amritsar again. From 1620 to 1630, Guru-Da-Chakk (Amritsar) remained the headquarters of Guru Sahib. In March 1631, Guru Sahib left Amritsar for Darauli Bhai (district Firozpur). He took (Guru) Granth Sahib with him. He spent some months at Darauli. Later, he sent (Guru) Granth Sahib to Kartarpur (district Jullundur). Sometimes later, he went again to Guru-Da-Chakk.

Guru Sahib had to fight his first battle (In September and October, 1621), at Ruhila, now Hargobindpur. It was followed by three major battles (in April 1634, at Amritsar; in December 1634, at Mehraj; from April 26 to 28, 1635, at Kartarpur) and one small battle at Phagwara (on April 29, 1935) against the Moguls. He won all the battles.

In May 1635, he reached Keeratpur Sahib. Since then Keeratpur Sahib became another major center of the Sikh nation. From time to time, Guru Hargobind Sahib traveled far and wide and gave sermons to his followers in different areas. He traveled throughout the Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh etc. During his stay at Keeratpur Sahib, several rebel Hindu rulers and the chiefs of Rajasthan and other areas sought refuge at Keeratpur Sahib in 1644.



 
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