GURUGURU HARGOBIND SAHIB (1595 - 1644),
son of and Guru Arjan Sahib was born at
Guru Ki Vadali (district Amritsar). He
had five sons : Gurditta, Suraj Mall,
Ani Rai, Atal Rai and (Guru) Tegh Bahadur
(Sahib). He was installed as Sixth Nanak.
He wore two swords representing Miri (temporal)
and Piri (transcendental). He declared
that the subject of the Supreme Sovereign
can not be subject of an earthly ruler.
He said the earthly rules had no right
to govern the minds and the bodies of
the subjects of God. A man of Miri has
an obligation to import Dharma (Righteousness)
and a man of Piri must not be a silent
observer to injustice, tyranny and in-humanism.
A Sikh has to be a "saint-soldier" i.e.
a man of Miri and Piri.
He revealed Akal Takht Sahib (the Throne
of the Almighty) in 1609. Here, he held
his court and received the ambassadors
from the other nations and sub-nations.
As per the instructions of Guru Arjan
Sahib, he formed Sikh Army to fight against
injustice. He laid the foundation of Lohgarh
Fort in 1609. Sometimes later, a wall
around the city Guru-Da-Chakk (Amritsar)
was also built. In 1612, he left Guru-Da-Chakk
for Delhi where he was arrested and sent
to Gwalior Fort Prison. From 1613 to 1619
he remained in Gwalior Fort Prison. Sain
Mian Mir and Wazir Khan (later, the Governor
of Lahore) were friendly to Guru Hargobind
Sahib. In 1618, Murtaza Khan, the Governor
of Lahore, died. He was succeeded by Wazir
Khan. Wazir Khan and Sain Mian Mir impressed
upon Jahangir to release Guru Sahib. Guru
Sahib was released on October 1619. He
helped the release of 52 Hindu kings (chiefs
of States) detained by Jahangir, the Mogul
emperor, at Gwalior Fort Prison. Among
them were the rulers of Bilaspur, Handur
also. In November 1619, he reached Goindwal
Sahib. Here, on January 1620, he held
a meeting with Jahangir. From here both
of them went to Kalanaur (district Gurdaspur).
After this Guru Sahib moved to Amritsar
again. From 1620 to 1630, Guru-Da-Chakk
(Amritsar) remained the headquarters of
Guru Sahib. In March 1631, Guru Sahib
left Amritsar for Darauli Bhai (district
Firozpur). He took (Guru) Granth Sahib
with him. He spent some months at Darauli.
Later, he sent (Guru) Granth Sahib to
Kartarpur (district Jullundur). Sometimes
later, he went again to Guru-Da-Chakk.
Guru Sahib had to fight his first battle
(In September and October, 1621), at Ruhila,
now Hargobindpur. It was followed by three
major battles (in April 1634, at Amritsar;
in December 1634, at Mehraj; from April
26 to 28, 1635, at Kartarpur) and one
small battle at Phagwara (on April 29,
1935) against the Moguls. He won all the
In May 1635, he reached Keeratpur Sahib.
Since then Keeratpur Sahib became another
major center of the Sikh nation. From
time to time, Guru Hargobind Sahib traveled
far and wide and gave sermons to his followers
in different areas. He traveled throughout
the Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Himanchal
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh
etc. During his stay at Keeratpur Sahib,
several rebel Hindu rulers and the chiefs
of Rajasthan and other areas sought refuge
at Keeratpur Sahib in 1644.